Part 2: Upper limb

The upper limb consists of four major parts: a girdle formed by the clavicles and scapulae, the arm, the forearm, and the hand. Although very mobile, the limb is supported and stabilized by muscles connected to the ribs and vertebrae.

The following Latin words (given with their English equivalents) are the basis of many anatomical terms (e.g., axillary artery, extensor pollicis): membrum (limb; extremity in this sense is obsolescent), humerus (shoulder), axilla (armpit), brachium (arm), cubitus (elbow), antebrachium (forearm), carpus (wrist), manus (hand), palma (palm), digiti manus (fingers), pollex, pollicis (thumb).

Additional reading

Castaing, J., and Soutoul, J. H., Atlas de coupes anatomiques. I. Membre superieur. II. Membre inferieur, Maloine, Paris, 1967. Interesting didactic drawings of cross sections.

Frazer's Anatomy of the Human Skeleton, 6th ed., rev. by A. S. Breathnach, Churchill, London, 1965. A detailed synthesis of skeletal and muscular anatomy arranged regionally. A classic.

Haymaker, W., and Woodhall, B., Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Principles of Diagnosis, 2nd ed., W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1953. Detailed, illustrated account, including tests of muscular actions. Important reference.

Henry, A. K., Extensile Exposure, 2nd ed., Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1957. Excellent account of applied anatomy.

Lockhart, R. D., Living Anatomy, 6th ed., Faber & Faber, London, 1963. Photographs showing muscles in action.

Medical Research Council, Aids to the Examination of the Peripheral Nervous System, H.M.S.O., London, 1976. Brief and valuable, including tests of muscular actions.

Royce, J., Surface Anatomy, Davis, Philadelphia, 1965. Photographs and key drawings of the living body.

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